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- Mt. Damavand (5,671 m)
- Mt. Sabalan (4,811 m)
- Mt. Alam Kuh (4,850 m)



Mt. Damavand (5,671 m)     TopΔ               back The name of Damavand has been repeated many times in the ancient Iranian myths and legends. In all of them it has been tried to describe Damavand with glory and strength. In one of the most famous legends it has been written that when Turians captured a part of ancient Iran, after sometime they realized it is difficult for them to govern and rule their new captured region and bet if an Iranian could shoot an arrow from his homeland to the farthest point in Turan, that point would be considered as the new border between Iran and Turan. To make this new point, Arash (the famous epic hero) who was the best arrow shooter at that time, climbed the peak and with all the love he had in this heart to his country, shoot the arrow with all his strength to the farthest point in Turan. After he shoot the arrow, all his strength was exhausted from his body and filled in the arrow which landed on the farthest point in Turanians country.
Damavand is a volcanic peak, when reaching the top, the climbers could see and also walk in the crater. The circumference of this crater is 450 m and it is covered with snow all the year.
When reaching the peak and looking to the west, Lar dam, Tehran and surrounding mountains are visible. Among other things that could be seen on the top are the corpses of some sheep died after reaching the peak which have not lost their shape very much because of the coldness of weather in the top of the mount.
Sulfur Hill
About 500 m left to reach the peak, there is a place called Sulfur hill or Dood Kooh which is the result of latest volcanic activities of this mount. This area is covered with Sulfur stones. In summers when the sun shines on them, sulfur gases rises from the stones, this is why that area is called Sulfur hill. The sulfur gas smells like a spoiled egg that may cause some irritation in the eyes and throat.
Abshar-e-Yakhi Waterfall
In the southern route of Damavand and before reaching the Sulfur hill, in the altitude of 5000 m, there is a frozen waterfall named Abshar-eYakhi (7 m high) which never melts. This frozen waterfall does not flow to any river. In warm seasons of the year when the upper frozen snow begin melting, the coldness of weather and wind prevent the melting of snow of this waterfall. This is why this waterfall is always frozen.
Damavand Climate
The speed of wind in Damavand region sometimes reaches even to 150 km per hours. Most of the winds blow from the west and the northwest, which causes considerable raining in this area.
The average annual rainfall in this region is 1400 mm; this is why the rivers of this area are filled with water nearly throughout the year.
Water Resources
Because of high amount of raining, Damavand region does not face with the problem of shortness of water, but in comparison with other regions, Damavand cannot be put among other mountains, which has considerable amount of water. The temperature of soil in Damavand is three times warmer than other mountains; this is why the snow melts very soon in this region.

Air Pressure
Route Name of Area Air Pressure mm/Hg
Northern First shelter 550
Northern Second shelter 490
Southern Masdjed 610
Southern Barghah-e-Sevom 540
Southern Abshar-e-Yakhi 480
Southwest Simorgh hut 540
Northeast Takht-e-Fereydoon hut 530
-- Damavand Peak 465
-- Sea level 760
Damavand Springs
Normally Damavand springs could be seen in the altitudes of lower than 3500 m. Several of its high altitude springs are seasonal. From 4000 m up to the peak there is not any spring, so the only source for obtaining water from 4000 up to the peak is water of snow.
Damavand wildlife
Animals such as fox, jackal and wolf can be found around Damavand. Those animals can also be seen up to the altitude of 4000 m. Because of the existing of forests in the northern part of this region, bears are found mostly in the northern forests and they avoid going to the high altitudes.
In these region animals such as goat, ewe, eagle, a kind of gazelle, boar and rabbit are also found in that region. Except boar and rabbit which live in the fields of Damavand other above mentioned animals live in the high altitudes in the warm seasons of the year, and when the weather become cold they come down to the lower altitudes. Those animals may climb up to 5000 m as well.
In Damavand region about 5 different types of snakes, scorpion, lizard and mouse can be found.
Damavand Glaciers
The most important glaciers of Damavand are:
- Two large glaciers of Sioleh and Dobi Sel in the northen of Damavand
- The famous glacier of of Yakhar in the northeast of Damavand which has been climbed many times in summers, but noone has already climbed it in winter.
- Western glaciers which do not have a particular name
Damavand Routes:
Damavand has 6 main routes and a number of side routes to climb, its main routes are:
Southern route, Northen route, Eastern route, Western route, Northeast route
Damavand Shelters:
In the altitude of 4100 m in the southern route, there is a shelter called “Bargah-e-Sevom” which holds about 30 people, it is also possible to camp near the shelter.
In the altitude of 4600 m of the northeast route there is a shelter called “ Takht-e-Fereydoon” which holds 30 people, it is possible to camp near this shelter as well.
In the western route and in the altitude of 4000 m there is a newly built shelter named “ Simorgh” .
In both altitude of 4000 and 5000 m of the Northern route there are two huts, each hold about 15 people, but there is no possibility to camp near those huts.


Damavand region has been the living place of human for more than 5000 years ago. On the right side of the southern road, there are number of man made caves which reveals the fact that this area has been the home of man from past centuries. Moreover, around Damavand and particularly in its southern part a number of ancient tombs and Paleolithic objects have been discovered, all of which prove the oldness of the history of this region. In the meantime, there are some ancient mythsand legends which add to the antiquity of civilization of this area

Myths and legends
The name of Damavand has been repeated many times in the ancient Iranian myths and legends. In all of them it has been tried to describe Damavand with glory and strength. In one of the most famous legends it has been written that when Turians captured a part of ancient Iran, after sometime they realized it is difficult for them to govern and rule their new captured region and bet if an Iranian could shoot an arrow from his homeland to the farthest point in Turan, that point would be considered as the new border between Iran and Turan. To make this new point, Arash (the famous epic hero) who was the best arrow shooter at that time, climbed the peak and with all the love he had in this heart to his country, shoot the arrow with all his strength to the farthest point in Turan. After he shoot the arrow, all his strength was exhausted from his body and filled in the arrow which landed on the farthest point in Turanians country.

Damavand is a volcanic peak, when reaching the top, the climbers could see and also walk in the crater. The circumference of this crater is 450 m and it is covered with snow all the year.

When reaching the peak and looking to the west, Lar dam, Tehran and surrounding mountains are visible. Among other things that could be seen on the top are the corpses of some sheep died after reaching the peak which have not lost their shape very much because of the coldness of weather in the top of the mount

Sulfur Hill
About 500 m left to reach the peak, there is a place called Sulfur hill or Dood Kooh which is the result of latest volcanic activities of this mount. This area is covered with Sulfur stones. In summers when the sun shines on them, sulfur gases rises from the stones, this is why that area is called Sulfur hill. The sulfur gas smells like a spoiled egg that may cause some irritation in the eyes and throat

Abshar-e-Yakhi Waterfall
In the southern route of Damavand and before reaching the Sulfur hill, in the altitude of 5000 m, there is a frozen waterfall named Abshar-eYakhi (7 m high) which never melts. This frozen waterfall does not flow to any river. In warm seasons of the year when the upper frozen snow begin melting, the coldness of weather and wind prevent the melting of snow of this waterfall. This is why this waterfall is always frozen.

Damavand Climate
The speed of wind in Damavand region sometimes reaches even to 150 km per hours. Most of the winds blow from the west and the northwest, which causes considerable raining in this area.

The average annual rainfall in this region is 1400 mm; this is why the rivers of this area are filled with water nearly throughout the year.

Water Resources
Because of high amount of raining, Damavand region does not face with the problem of shortness of water, but in comparison with other regions, Damavand cannot be put among other mountains, which has considerable amount of water. The temperature of soil in Damavand is three times warmer than other mountains; this is why the snow melts very soon in this region.

Damavand Springs
Normally Damavand springs could be seen in the altitudes of lower than 3500 m. Several of its high altitude springs are seasonal. From 4000 m up to the peak there is not any spring, so the only source for obtaining water from 4000 up to the peak is water of snow.

Damavand wildlife
Animals such as fox, jackal and wolf can be found around Damavand. Those animals can also be seen up to the altitude of 4000 m. Because of the existing of forests in the northern part of this region, bears are found mostly in the northern forests and they avoid going to the high altitudes.

In these region animals such as goat, ewe, eagle, a kind of gazelle, boar and rabbit are also found in that region. Except boar and rabbit which live in the fields of Damavand other above mentioned animals live in the high altitudes in the warm seasons of the year, and when the weather become cold they come down to the lower altitudes. Those animals may climb up to 5000 m as well.

In Damavand region about 5 different types of snakes, scorpion, lizard and mouse can be found.

Damavand Glaciers
The most important glaciers of Damavand are:
- Two large glaciers of Sioleh and Dobi Sel in the northen of Damavand
- The famous glacier of of Yakhar in the northeast of Damavand which has been climbed many times in summers, but no one has already climbed it in winter.
- Western glaciers which do not have a particular name

Damavand  Routes
Damavand  has  6  main  routes  and  a number  of  side  routes to  climb, its  main  routes  are:
 Southern  route,   Northen route,  Eastern  route, Western  route,   Northeast  route. 

Damavand  Shelters
In the  altitude  of 4100 m in the southern  route,  there is  a shelter called  "Bargah-e-Sevom” which  holds  about 30 people, it  is  also  possible  to  camp  near the  shelter.

In  the  altitude  of  4600 m of  the northeast  route  there  is a  shelter called “ Takht-e-Fereydoon” which  holds  30  people, it  is  possible  to camp  near  this  shelter as well.

In  the western  route and  in the  altitude  of  4000 m there  is  a newly built shelter named  "Simorgh”.

In both altitude of 4000 and 5000 m of the Northern  route  there are  two  huts,  each  hold  about  15  people, but  there is  no  possibility to  camp  near  those  huts.





Mt. Sabalan (4,811 m)     TopΔ
This Mt. is in 47° 50' of Greenwich longitude and in 38° 17' northern of latitude.

On the top of its peak and inside of its volcanic crater, there is a very beautiful lake. In the northeast part of Mt. Sabalan there is a glacier (about 300 m), on which in summers mountaineers do some climbing exercise to prepare themselves for their winter ascents.

Around Mt. Sabalan and its slopes there are many spa and mineral hot springs, which are useful for healing skin diseases, the most important of them are:
- Sareyn
- Ghotour Soei
- Shabil
- Sard Ab

CLIMBING ROUTES OF MT SABALAN

- Northeast route
- Western route
- Eastern route
- Southern route
- Southwest route

Sabalan has two shelters called “ Eastern shelter” and Western shelter”.
              back

Sabalan Volcanic Mt. Is located 40 Km southwest of Ardabil province and 25 km southeast of Meshkin Shahr town. This Mt. Is located in one of the cold regions of Iran, with long winters.
This Mt. is in 47° 50' of Greenwich longitude and in 38° 17' northern of latitude.
On the top of its peak and inside of its volcanic crater, there is a very beautiful lake. In the northeast part of Mt. Sabalan there is a glacier (about 300 m), on which in summers mountaineers do some climbing exercise to prepare themselves for their winter ascents.
Around Mt. Sabalan and its slopes there are many spa and mineral hot springs, which are useful for healing skin diseases, the most important of them are:
- Sareyn
- Ghotour Soei
- Shabil
- Sard Ab

 Climbing Routes
- Northeast route
- Western route
- Eastern route
- Southern route
- Southwest route

Sabalan has two shelters called "Eastern shelter" and "Western shelter".  

 



Mt. Alam kuh (4,850 m)     TopΔ
Having peaks with an altitude of over 4400 m and also enjoying the highest wall in Iran named as Alam Kuh wall (650 m) as well as some great glaciers, this region is considered as an important climbing place for expert climbers.

Takht-eSoleyman is surrounded from the north by the Caspian sea, from the east by Chaloos river, from the south by Alamoot and Taleghan valleys and from the west thoroughly by a great forest valley named Sehezar. This regions consists
of more than 40 peaks each with an altitude of over 4, 000 m.
              back

The mountainous region of Takht-e-Soleyman and Alam Kuh is situated in nearly northwest of Tehran city.  In Fact this mountain lies in the Alborz mountains range in the north of Iran between Tehran and the Caspian sea, forming a peak of the Takht-e Soleyman Massif.  At 4,850 m high, it is the second highest peak in Iran, only to Mount Damavand at 5,671 m. The 800 m high steep granite north face provides some of the most difficult and interesting mountaineering routes in the country and the climbs rank alongside major climbing routes in the European Alps.
Having peaks with an altitude of over 4400 m and also enjoying the highest wall in Iran named as Alam Kuh wall (650 m) as well as some great glaciers, this region is considered as an important climbing place for expert climbers.
Takht-eSoleyman is surrounded from the north by the Caspian sea, from the east by Chaloos river, from the south by Alamoot and Taleghan valleys and from the west thoroughly by a great forest valley named Sehezar. This regions consists of more than 40 peaks each with an altitude of over 4, 000 m.